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PCB Trace and Via Currents and Temperatures
The Complete Analysis

Selected Figures

Traces cool better in the X-Y plane than in the Z-axis because the fiberglass conducts heat better than does the resin.

Thermal profile of a trace with a via. The via is not the hottest point on the trace.


Current densities around a trace with four vias.


Trace at the moment of fusing.


Traces do not heat uniformly, even at low temperatures.


3-layer trace, 2.0 Oz. copper foil with two different one-Oz. plated layers. 

2 Oz. foil over substrate. Note the surface roughness between the trace and the dielectric.

X-ray analysis of one of the  PCBs.


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